Microbiomorph studies on the cultural layers of Jankent (AD X-XIII), Southern Kazakhstan

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Microbiomorphs, presented by minerogenic (phytoliths, diatoms, sponges) and organic (pollen, fern spores, fungal spores, chitin) remains of biological nature, provide a good opportunity for environmental reconstructions in the past. Here we present the results of microbiomorph studies of the cultural layers of Jankent (9th - beginning 13th cent. AD). The archaeological site Jankent is located in the southern Kazakhstan on river Syrdarya and is represented by so-called “tell” (“tobe”, “tupe”). Tell is a hill formation, deposited due to arid climate and high anthropogenic sedimentation rate. In the north-western part of the site, a citadel was constructed. The city was surrounded by a rampart. In 2014, an excavation of the square 5 opened few houses and a street between them. In order to reconstruct environment during the settlement phase, samples were taken from the house walls, inside and outside of the building. Pollen spectra from the archaeological horizons of the main settlement phase reveal dominance of the desert vegetation, presented by dominated Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Poaceae. Such vegetation implies arid climate conditions during the settlement phase. The landscapes of oasis were presented by agricultural fields, indicated by Cerealia-type and ruderal herbs, and open water places, suggested from presence of Sparganium-type in the spectra. Presence of coprophilous fungal spores such as Sporormiella, Sordaria, Arnium, Chaetomium suggest presence of animals and pasture. Sample taken from the street is characterized by high amount of Sparganium-type, coprophilous spores and variable phytoliths, indicating using of this space as a pit for organic (plant remains, dung) and charcoal deposition. Presence of phytoliths of Triticum spp. suggests wheat cultivation. At the beginning of the 11th - beginning of 13th centuries AD climate fluctuations possibly led to the establishment of more continental and arid conditions.

About the authors

D A Gavrilov

ФГБУН Институт почвоведения и агрохимии СО РАН

Author for correspondence.
Email: denis_gavrilov@list.ru

L S Shumilovskikh

Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет; Georg-August-University Göttingen

Email: shumilovskikh@gmail.com

E Sh Amirov

Казахский национальный университет им. аль-Фараби

Email: e.amirov82@gmail.com
г. Алматы

I R Kamaldinov

Казахский национальный университет им. аль-Фараби

Email: denis_gavrilov@list.ru
г. Алматы


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Copyright (c) 2016 Gavrilov D.A., Shumilovskikh L.S., Amirov E.S., Kamaldinov I.R.

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