Vol 5, No 1 (2014)

Cover Page
Articles
Notes on the phenology of fungi in ombrotrophic bog
Filippova N.V., Mourgues A., Philippe F.
Abstract
Observations of fungal fruiting and micro-climate were done during a two-year time period in bog habitats near Khanty-Mansiysk town (middle taiga of West Siberia). Air and soil profile temperature regimes of two bog habitats (treed bog, sphagnum lawn) were compared to forest one. Precipitation was measured in one location at the bog (during two years of observations). Fruiting of larger fungi was recorded in 2013 by counting at plots placed in two bog communities (additional information on fruiting was collected in 2012 by random sampling). Quantitative registrations of larger fungi were done only in August-September, the time of abundant fruiting. Sporocarp abundance was growing during this period and reached its maximum in the middle of September for both years. Mean number of species at plots was remaining constant (totally fruiting of 59 species observed). Earlier fruiting of larger fungi at bogs was scarce, four species were noticed with earlier appearance. Microfungi on plant litter were observed during the entire vegetation season in 2013. Periodicity in fruiting of 40 species was registered. The three studied habitats differ in micro-climates in spite of their geographical proximity. The bogs have highest daily amplitude and temperature range within the 0-5 cm layer. Soil surface in treed bogs is more subjected to frosts, lawn has lower number of frost hours at the surface and forest has intermediate position. The longevity of the vegetation period (period with temperatures >5°) at the surface is the shortest in treed bog but at 5 cm depth is the shortest in forest. Fungi settled in the litter (0-5 cm) experience more extreme climatic conditions in the treed bog environment and, to a lesser extent in the lawn habitat. The fruiting pattern registered in 2013 at Mukhrino bog seems to be corresponding to autumn downshift mean soil and minimum air temperatures. The influence of precipitation on fruiting was not very pronounced.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2014;5(1):3-16
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Oxidoreductase activities in eutrophic peat bogs
Porohina E.V., Golubina O.A.
Abstract
The results of enzymatic activity in peat deposits of eutrophic bogs are described. The formation of bogs depends upon the peat formation, the botanical composition, chemical properties of peat materials and other indicators (marsh water levels, the deposition temperature and etc.) The Tagan Bog is located in Russia, in the Tomsk region, in the hollow of the Tom River ancient outflow. The source of water and mineral nutrition is considered to be precipitation and slope water. The underlying soil or subsurface geological materials are sands, sandy loams and silty clay. The peat deposits of the Tagan Bog are characterized by herbaceous and woody-herbaceous peats with a high degree of the decomposition. The capacity of peat deposits at the observation point is 3 m in thickness with an age of 3445±50 years. The Turochakskoye Bog is located in Russia, in the Altai Republic and is fully inundated. The main source of water and mineral nutrition is surface wastewater. The eutrophic type of peat deposits is recognized as a dominate one. The capacity of peat deposits at the observation point is 4,7 m in thickness with an age of 7060±90 years. The peat deposits of the Tagan Bog have been found to be distinct in a higher activity of catalase and peroxidase. The catalase activity in the peat deposits of the Tagan and Turochakskoye Bogs varies in the range of 5,66-7,32 points and 1,12-17,89 points, respectively. The catalase activity is distributed almost evenly throughout the whole thickness of the peat deposits of the Tagan Bog. The enzymatic activity in the peat deposits of the Turochakskoye Bog decreases with depth. Peroxidase activity changes in both the peat deposits of the Tagan and Turochakskoye Bogs in the range of 21,94-37,55 points and 10,95-27,48 points, respectively. The highest peroxidase activity is indicated in the deep layers of peat deposits of both bogs (as compared with the upper layer at a depth of 0-25 cm). Changes in polyphenol oxidase activities in the peat deposits of the Tagan and Turochakskoye Bogs vary in the range of 0,51-2,19 points and 0,16-3,50 points, respectively. The polyphenol oxidase activity is 1,2 times higher in the peat deposits of the Turochakskoye Bog. A seasonal dynamics of the polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase enzymatic activities in the peat deposits of both bogs is significantly dependent on the properties of the weather conditions. A more pronounced seasonal dynamics of polyphenol oxidase is typical of the peat deposits of the Turochakskoye Bog. In the upper two-meter part of the deposits have been observed summer maximum enzymatic activities. The polyphenol oxidase activity increases in the lower part of the deposits from May till September inclusive when it warms up. In the peat deposits of the Tagan and Turochakskoye Bogs have been observed autumn maximum peroxidase activities in the case with a seasonal variation. In the peat deposits of the Tagan Bog the catalase activity varies slightly during the excessively wet vegetation period. A pronounced catalase activity in the peat deposits of the Turochakskoye Bog in humid period of the year 2013 was observed only at a depth of 0-25 cm and at 150-175 cm which is characterized by two intense peaks in May and September.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2014;5(1):17-25
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Methane fluxes from south tundra ecosystems of West Siberia
Krivenok L.A., Glagolev M.V., Fastovets I.A., Smolentsev B.A., Maksyutov S.S.
Abstract
Methane is one of the trace gasses, and its impact on the global warming is estimated to be approximately 15 per cent. Even though its concentration in the atmosphere increases relatively slowly, methane absorbs infrared radiation many times more intensively than carbon dioxide does. This makes it of great significance since anthropogenic sources of methane increased in the past decades as well as natural methane emission due to temperature rising. Wetlands are believed to be the main natural source of methane. This is why West Siberia was chosen to study methane fluxes as its territory up to 27 per cent consists of wetlands. A large-scale survey was taken with the aim of measuring methane fluxes in different ecosystems, estimating the total (regional) methane flux from West Siberia and studying the correlation between methane emission and different factors influencing it. Since 1990 th almost all the territory of West Siberia was covered with measurements, but tundra still needs to be studied. The interest in studying methane fluxes from tundra is supported by the fact that here temperature increases faster than, e.g. in south taiga. These rapid changes of temperature may affect methane emission in the future in a rather strong way. In 2013 season, from July 18 to August 5, measurements of methane emissions in south tundra subzone of West Siberia were carried out, using a static сhamber technique. Sampling was conducted in Tazovskiy region, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, 12km SSW from the town of Tazovskiy in the most common for this region mire ecosystems: khasyreys, polygonal, oligotrophic and mesotrophic bogs, palsa complexes and dry tundra. The highest methane fluxes values were determined at mesotrophic bogs (total sample median was 2.75 mgCH 4 · m -2 · h -1, lower and upper quartiles were 0.12 and 4.78 mgCH 4 · m -2 · h -1, respectively) and hollows of palsa complex (median 0.79 mgCH 4 · m -2 · h -1, lower and upper quartiles 0.37 and 1.28 mgCH 4 · m -2 · h -1, respectively. The lowest flux values were found at mineral soils of dry tundra, where the median, lower and upper quartiles were -0.05, -0.01 and 0.11 mgCH 4 · m - 2 · h -1, respectively. Also, we report that no daily dynamics of fluxes in dry tundra was found. The frequency distribution functions of fluxes, which was made for oligotrophic bogs, palsa and khasyreys, are similar to lognormal ones. For mesotrophic bogs high fluxes are more frequent than for other ecosystems, where the frequency is near zero. Also, despite the fact that for mesotrophic bogs the most frequent flux is negative, flux median was 2.75 mgCH 4 · m - 2 · h -1 which in owing to high fluxes presence with not zero frequency.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2014;5(1):26-42
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Otvet na «Otkrytoe obrashchenie» A.V. Naumova: II. Ob annotirovannom spiske
Glagolev M.V.
Abstract

«Задача ученого - не только быть правым, но и уметь доказать свою правоту и пропагандировать свои идеи». П.Л. Капица. ...

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2014;5(1):43-56
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Kommentarii k diskussii mezhdu A.V. Naumovym i M.V. Glagolevym, razvernutoy v zhurnale «Dinamika okruzhayushchey sredy i global'nye izmeneniya klimata»
Sabrekov A.F.
Abstract

В конце календарного 2013 года мне было предложено выступить в качестве арбитра в научной дискуссии, которая началась между к.б.н. М.В. Глаголевым и д.б.н. А.В. Наумовым в формате «Открытого обращения» последнего и комментариев к нему первого. ...

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2014;5(1):57-71
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