Vol 3, No 2 (2012)

Cover Page
Articles
The apology of reductionism (reductionism as ideological basis of mathematical modeling)
Glagolev M.V., Fastovets I.A.
Abstract
He following work is a delivered by one of the authors “Mathematical modeling of biological processes” lection course adapted to the format of a journal article. It criticizes holistic conceptions of some of pseudoscientific philosophic thoughts (e.g. vitalism, dialectical materialism, neovitalism, organicism, holism, emergintism) and points out the significance of reductionism as the philosophic basis for modern Natural science thoughts on the whole and biological processes mathematical modeling in particular. However, it is emphasized that holistic conceptions should not be considered to be totally pseudoscientific. As a rule, they correspond to either the empirical level of scientific cognition, or the next cognition level “phenomenological theories” (i.e. theoretical) stage, when empirical factual material accumulation, systematization and generalization take place. Moving to the higher stage (The stage of explanatory theories), holistic thoughts naturally disappear and give way to reductionism. In the article scientific thoughts evolution stages, from holism to reductionism, are consistently examined and analyzed. The existence of motion of matter forms accentuated by Engels is thoroughly questioned . Higher to lower motion of matter forms irreducibility is proved ambiguous, in this way, failure of dialectical materialism theory is proved. By using Korzukhin theorem and enzyme kinetics as the examples, apparent biological to chemical processes reducibility is showed. At the same time, in contrast, some arguments in favor of holistic views as a necessary stage in the development of scientific thoughts are offered. And, of course, it was hardly possible to avoid science development in Russia issue, where during a long period of time under oppression of the Soviet regime pseudoscientific thoughts had been cruelly enforced. Perhaps some of these thoughts remain in the minds of the younger generation even nowadays?
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2012;3(2):1-24
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Values of methane emission from drainage ditches
Sirin A.A., Suvorov G.G., Chistotin M.V., Glagolev M.V.
Abstract

Methane fluxes were measured from ditches on peatlands drained for different purposes in two testing areas in European part of Russia. We used static chamber method and gas chromatography for CH4 analysis. In Moscow Oblast CH4 emissions were measured from ditches on milled peat extraction area and on agricultural drainage area (used for haying) during 2005-2011. Ditch spacing for both sites is 40 m, width on water level – 1.5-2 m. Averaged (median) methane flux for summer period was 28.5 and 12.5 mgС-CH4∙m–2∙h–1, respectively, at these sites. Averaged (median) methane flux for summer period was 28.5 and 12.5 mgС-CH4∙m–2∙h–1 for these sites consequently. In 2009-2011 methane fluxes were also measured from the ditch on forest drainage area, upstream and downstream the dam built for mire restoration. Simple average CH4 emission rate was much higher at tail-bay point with flowing water as compared with back point upstream the dam with stagnant water – 14.4 and 2.4 mgС-CH4∙m–2∙h–1, consequently. We assume water flow rate supports water degassing and increase of CH4 emission from ditches. In Tver Oblast methane flux was measured in 2010 from ditches on forested bog and on forested fen, both drained for forestry with ditch spacing approx. 100 m, and ditch width on water level – 1-1.5 m. Flux observed at first nutrient-poor site was much lower – 0.31 mgС-CH4∙m–2∙h–1, as compared with nutrient-rich one – 3.88 mgС-CH4∙m–2∙h–1. Using methane emission rates from ditches and fractional area of ditches we calculate emission factors from drained peatlands. The results showed rather high values which need to be considered while assessing GHG emissions from drained peatlands.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2012;3(2):1-10
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The methodology for estimation of scientific activity in UNESCO department of Yugra State University
Glagolev M.V., Lapshina E.D.
Abstract
Two methods for estimation of scientific activity were analyzed: (i) the method used in institutes of Russian Academy of Science, (ii) the method used in Lomonosov Moscow State University. New methodology was developed on the basis of these two methods. This methodology considers the efficiency of staff’s scientific work in last year (by analyzing of conference’s status in which presentations were shown, impact factors of journals in which papers were published, etc.) and the efficiency in previous years (by means of citation metrics for published papers). We propose to use four Internet-services for citation metrics: “Google Scholar”, “Web of Science”, “Scopus” and “Russian Science Citation Index”.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2012;3(2):1-16
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