Vol 8, No 2 (2017)

Cover Page
Theoretical works
Model of soil organic matter humification and mineralization and its application for calculation of peatland ecosystems carbon budget characteristics
Zinchenko A.V.

A road map for calculating the carbon budget of peatlands is suggested. The method of calculation is based on the analysis of peat vertical profiles and the soil carbon dynamic modeling. The model of soil organic matters destruction is developed to include the case of the finite period of destruction. The rates of CO2 and CH4 generation separately are calculated in peat layers above and under the ground water level.   A technic of quantification of the model parameters on a basis of peat sampling and incubation experiments is developed. The following integrated characteristics of carbon budget can be calculated: (1) net exchange of carbon between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, (2) net exchange of carbon dioxide, (3) methane release, (4) net exchange of greenhouse gases in CO2–equivalents, (5) leaching of carbon, (6) carbon sequestration due to peat accumulation. The suggested method is aimed to extend the direct field measurements of those characteristics.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2017;8(2):3-17
The history of mycological studies in Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug: 1) the period of isolated studies, lignicolous basidiomycetes and phytopathological studies
Filippova N.V., Arefyev S.P., Bulyonkova T.M., Zvyagina E.A., Kapitonov V.I., Makarova T.A., Mukhin V.A., Stavishenko I.V., Tavshanzhi E.I., Shiryaev A.G.

Fungi represent one of the largest taxonomical groups including approximately about 1.5 million species, with only 5 to 10% are scientifically described up to date. The mycological systematics is a swiftly developing discipline owing to the major progress in molecular methods. Different regions of Russia differ in the degree of exploration mycology-wise, and West Siberia (WS) until recently was a white spot in this context. The mycological research in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra (KHMAO) which is located in middle-taiga zone of WS started from isolated studies in the beginning of 20th century, but the regular research can be described from the 70-80s. The present publication summarizes the results of 50-year studies of fungi in the region and provides species diversity estimated up-to-date. We also apply an electronic Fungal Records Database of Yugra which is intended to be developed in a biological diversity database according to present standards.

One of well-studied ecological groups in the area are Lignicolous basidiomycetes. V. A. Mukhin made a geographic analysis and ecological characteristics of lignicolous basidiomycetes through all zones of WS from the forest-steppe zone in the South to tundra-steppe in the North. The possible origin of the mycota in the geographic aspect was analyzed, the species ranges outlined and ecological factors affecting species ranges (e.g. humidity, temperature, substrate specialization, interspecific competition) analyzed. The communities of lignicolous fungi were analyzed according to the inhabited forest types: dark coniferous, light coniferous, broad-leaved, small-leaved or floodplain forests. The stages of wood decomposition are described in WS and characterized by the species of corresponding fungal community. Finally, the rare species of particular habitats, zones or totally were revealed, and the recommendations on their protection were proposed.

S. P. Arevyev and I. V. Stavishenko continued the research of lignicolous basidiomycetes in the region. They provided additional studies of species diversity in most of conservation areas and made ecological monitoring in the areas of oil and gas extraction. I. V. Stavishenko described in detail the lignicolous macrofungi of the middle-taiga Priobye region in her CSc thesis. S. P. Arefyev used mathematical methods of ecological modeling to predict species composition of lignicolous fungi depending on substrate characteristics, climate and disturbance of the forest.

The forest- and phytopathological studies were undertaken by S. P. Arefyev, and T. A. Makarova with coauthors. The fungal pathogens of Siberian pine (P. sibirica) were studied and the ecological causes of the diseases described along with recommendations on afforestation of Siberian pine cultures. The studies on the causes and extent of the myco-pathological diseases of urban spaces were done in the Surgut town and in some other regions.

The analysis of other research areas and the resulting fungal records database will be continued in the second part of the publication.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2017;8(2):18-28
The history of mycological studies in Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug: 2) studies of Macromycetes, Lichens and Myxomycetes, state of mycological collections and fungal records database
Filippova N.V., Arefyev S.P., Bulyonkova T.M., Zvyagina E.A., Kapitonov V.I., Makarova T.A., Mukhin V.A., Stavishenko I.V., Tavshanzhi E.I., Shiryaev A.G.

In the first part of this paper we discussed the importance of mycological studies in the Northern regions of West Siberia with developing infrastructure and relatively young mycological research history. The period of the first isolated studies in the beginning of 20th century was described first. The developing of research on lignicolous basidiomycetes and phytopathological studies were analyzed then. In the second part of publication we continue to describe other research directions and summarize the species records in a regional occurrence database.

The terricolous macrofungi are important ecological group of saprotrophs and ecto-mycorrhizal species. The diversity of macrofungi was studied in a number of regions in Khanty-Mansi AO: the most intense studies were made in its capital – Khanty-Mansiysk vicinities and in the south-east part (Yuganskiy Nature Reserve). N. V. Filippova with co-authors revealed species diversity and community structure in forests near Khanty-Mansiysk and E. A. Zvyagina with coauthors are making continuous studies of funga in Yuganskiy reserve. In addition to annotated species lists, the particular features of ecology, biology and abundance were described in separate works for some rare and protected or under-studied species. The study of mycobiota of clavarioid basidiomycetes was made in one conservation area (A. G. Shiryaev). The most well-known Internet-resource collecting information on macromycetes in West Siberia is «Fungi of Novosibirsk region» also fulfilled by species findings from KHMAO (T. M. Bulyonkova).

The area of Khanty-Mansi AO is sufficiently bogged where peatlands could cover up to 70% of the territory in some regions. The fungal communities of peatlands (raised bogs) were studied here in details, such as: macrofungi, microfungi on different litter debris of bog plants, yeasts on Sphagnum and bog plants, lignicolous fungi of bog pines and others.

The lichens represent the large part of species diversity of fungi described in the region. The lichen mycobiota was described in several conservation areas, the highest diversity revealed in the North Ural mountains reaching about 900 species within a relatively small area (N. V. Sedelnikova).

The species diversity of myxomycetes revealed in two studies in conservation areas.

The fungal conservation programs were started in the region since the publication of the first Red list of fungi (2003). Henceforth, the knowledge about rare species was accumulating during following diversity studies and specialized rare species monitoring programs. The second improved edition of Red list of fungi (2013) includes 53 species of fungi and 29 species of lichens.

There were three species and one combination newly described in the region during the history of its research and some additional works report on collections of possibly under-described species which leaves a wide field of future work.

The last paragraph requires the development of the fungal collections (fungaria) which could promote research in fungal diversity, taxonomy, ecology and applied fields in the region. There are only five known to us collections of fungi located in the region, which are part of biological collections of museums, universities or Nature Reserves. The total amount of specimens of fungi and lichens in these collections reaches 10 000. The large part of collected and identified specimens are stored nevertheless outside the borders of KHMAO in the central Russian collections (like LE, Botanical Institute in Saint-Petersburg) or in other collections located in the researchers’ institutions.

As a result of summarizing the above mentioned publications, the database of fungal record was created. The Fungal Records Database of Yugra includes about 15 fields describing species name, publication source, herbarium number, data of collection, geography, and some ecological features and presently realized as Google-spreadsheet (available from: https://fungariumysu.org/fredy). It will be hopefully developed in a complex relational database according to present biological database standards in future. Presently, the database includes about 14 000 records of fungal findings in the region and adjacent areas reported from 76 scientific publications.

According to the database summary report, there are about 2600 species and subspecies taxa identified within KHMAO up-to-date. The richest studied groups are Agaricoid basidiomycetes (781 species, or 30%), Lichens (973 species, 37%) and Aphyllophoroid basidiomycetes (504 species, 19%). The less studied groups are Ascomycetes (9%), Myxomycetes (3%), Heterobasidiomycetous fungi, Yeasts and Rusts (<1%).

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2017;8(2):29-45
Biodiversity informatics: global trends, national perspective and regional progress in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug
Filippova N.V., Filippov I.V., Schigel D.S., Ivanova N.V., Shashkov M.P.

This paper briefly summarizes the history and the contemporary trends in biodiversity informatics, as well as the standards used for biodiversity databases construction. We provide the examples of modern global and local projects on data integration in biodiversity in Russia and worldwide. Finally we discuss the developing of the regional system in the Khanty-Mansi autonomous region - Yugra, where biological collections hasn’t been digitized and their data hasn’t been shared through global repositories such as  GBIF until recently.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2017;8(2):46-56
Experimental works
The organic components group composition of different peat types in taiga zone of Western Siberia (Mukhrino bog)
Latysh I.M.

This publication presents the results of analysis of the group chemical composition of the organic matter of peat, the most abundant in the central part of the taiga zone of Western Siberia. Peat was collected from three types of ecosystems - tall ryam, ryam, hollow, from a depth of 20-30 cm. Analysis of the botanical composition and degree of peat decomposition were carried out visually using a light microscope. The group chemical composition of the organic substance was analyzed using chloroform to extract lipids, 4% CHL for extraction of water-soluble and easily hydrolyzable compounds, 0.1 n. NaOH for the extraction of humic acids and fulvic acids.

As a result of analysis of botanical composition it was determined that the samples from tall ryam consist of sphagnum peat (Sphagnum fuscum - 50%, Sphagnum capillifolium - 30%, Polytrichum strictum - 5%, pine roots - 15%) and have a low degree of decomposition (5% ), the samples from the ryam are formed by fuscum-peat (Sphagnum fuscum - 100%) and have a zero degree of decomposition, of hollow peat with a decomposition of 10% is composed of Sphagnum papillosum - 50%, Eriophorum vaginatum - 40%, Carex limosa - 10%.

As a result of the determination of the chemical composition of peat, it was established that peat with minimal decomposition (0%) and 100% composed of Sphagnum fuscum has the largest amount of water-soluble and easily hydrolyzable compounds, which on average is 16% higher. Peat from the hollow with the remains of Eriophorum is characterized by the maximum amount of humic acids (25.87%), the content of which is on average 14% more than in other types of peat. Sphagnum peat from a tall ryam, contains the greatest amount: bitumen - 7.27%, this is 3 times higher than in S. fuscum peat and Eriophorum-Sphagnum peat; Lignin-cellulose residue - 28.19%, whose content is on average 7.1% higher than in other types of peat.

A tendency has been found to reduce water-soluble and easily hydrolyzable compounds in the series: S. fuscum peat (ryam)> Sphagnum peat (tall rime)> Eriophorum-Sphagnum peat (hollows in the ridge hollow complex). It is found that as the peat decomposition increases, the amount of humic acids increases and the amount of water-soluble and easily hydrolyzable compounds decreases.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2017;8(2):57-63

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