Vol 11, No 1 (2020)

Theoretical works
Land cover features of the pool of river Polia of the eastern slope of the Subpolar Ural
Bolshanik P.V., Kuznetsova S.B.

The article considers the natural conditions, landscape, floristic and phytocenotic features of the territory of the Poli river basin of the eastern slope of the Subpolar Urals. A historical overview of geographical studies of the area is given. The main components that affect the formation of landscapes are characterized. A landscape map of the region under study is proposed. Particular attention is paid to the characteristics of rare plants observed in this territory. The necessity of isolating the study area as a natural monument is substantiated.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2020;11(1):4-15
Annual range of temperature and precipitation forecast for Altai-Sayan mountain country
Kirsta Y.B., Lovtskaya O.V.

Analysis and long-term forecasting of climatic characteristics of the mountains is laborious and extremely difficult due to complex vertical and horizontal differentiation of climatic fields and insufficient number of weather stations in the region. We have developed a method for statistical forecast of average monthly temperature in the surface air layer and monthly precipitation for the mountain areas with an annual lead time.

The method is based on the description of monthly dynamics of the mentioned factors expressed in percent of their average annual monthly values measured in situ. Such a dynamics remains the same throughout the study territory, regardless of its height and exposure. To convert the relative values of temperature and precipitation into their conventional units of measurements (°C and mm) one needs just mean annual January and July values of air temperature and precipitation for the territory under study. By the example of the Altai-Sayan mountain country, it is shown that the use of observation data for 6–7 years obtained from several reference weather stations ensure reliable prediction. The forecast is equally true for any part of the mountainous country due to spatial generalization of relative changes in these factors. The universal criterion A for assessing the quality of various predictive methods (including those, which do not use the model quality indices RSR and Nash–Sutcliffe) is proposed.

The criterion is the error of predictive method Sdiff normalized by standard deviation Sobs of observations from their average and equals to Sdiff/ Sobs. It is associated with NSE and RSR indices through dependencies RSR = A and NSE = 1–RSR2 = 1–2A2. The proposed criterion was used in assessing the quality of temperature and precipitation forecasts; it was close to the theoretically best one for statistical prognoses.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2020;11(1):16-23
Experimental works
The reaction of the environment to climate change in the Northern latitudes (on the example of the taiga zone of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra)
Kuznetsova V.P.

The article presents results of investigation the impact of modern climate change on the environment in the taiga zone of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Ugra. Long-term indicators of average annual air temperature and the duration of the occurrence of stable snow cover are given according to some meteorological stations in the region. The response of the natural environment is determined based on the analysis of phenological processes under the conditions of climate change in the studied territory. Hazardous hydrometeorological phenomena observed on the territory in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Ugra are presented.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2020;11(1):24-36
Decomposition rate of peat-forming plants at the initial stages of destruction in peat deposits of the oligotrophic bogs “Bakcharskoe” and “Timiryasevskoe”
Nikonova L.G., Golovatskaya E.A., Tereshchenko N.N.

The article presents experimental data on the decomposition of peat-forming plants at the initial stages in peat deposits of oligotrophic bogs with different hydrothermal conditions. A quantitative assessment of the decomposition rate of the main  peat-forming plants is given; the dynamics of the total carbon, nitrogen and ash elements content is determined; a microbiological analysis is performed. It was found that the most intensive decomposition processes occur in the first month of destruction, then the rate of decomposition decreases. Sphagnum mosses are the most resistant to decomposition (the mass loss of Sphagnum fuscum is 9-18% of the initial value). In general, more intensive decomposition processes are observed in the peat deposits of the warmer and less humid Timiryazevskoe bog, in which the nitrogen cycle microflora is most active. Microflora involved in the carbon cycle in the first months of decomposition is generally less active than other groups of microorganisms-destructors.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2020;11(1):37-48
Hydrometeorological conditions and water regime of the lake Krasilovskoye (Altai krai) in 2013-2017
Sutorikhin I.A., Samoylova S.Y., Kolomeitsev A.A., Kurakov S.A.

The paper presents the analysis of the data on monitoring the hydrological state of the basinal freshwater lake Krasilovskoye (Altai Krai) and hydrometeorological conditions in its catchment in 2013-2017. The data from the automated measuring complex developed at the Institute of monitoring of climatic and ecological systems of SB RAS as well as the data on snow surveys carried out by researchers from IWEP SB RAS in the catchment and water area of the lake are used. Observations of water regime in the basin lake in the years with contrasting hydro-climatic conditions made it possible to identify the dominant factor determining its spring filling and to quantify its level dynamics. The magnitude and rate of level rise in spring mainly depend on hydro-climatic conditions of air and soil of the previous cold period, which in turn determine the ratio of surface and underground runoff in spring.

It was found that in the winter of 2014 and 2016, hydro-climatic conditions of the cold period contributed to the freezing of soil and the formation of a "locking" ice layer, which prevented vertical infiltration of melt water. Intensive surface runoff induced a drastic level rise up to 1-1.5 m. In 2015 and 2017, at the absence of soil freezing, the water rise was much lower, despite large snow reserves and intensive snowmelt. In the spring of 2017, the driven out to the water surface diluted near-bottom layer enriched with hydrogen sulfide caused mass fish death after insignificant water inflow to the lake.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2020;11(1):49-53
Overviews and lectures
Systems approach to the study of microbial methanogenesis in West-Siberian wetlands
Kotsyurbenko O.R., Glagolev M.V., Sabrekov A.F., Terentieva I.E.

This work is a lecture adapted to the format of a journal article on the course "Modern Topics in Biology", delivered by one of the authors in Yugra State University.

The modern stage of the development of science and biology, in particular, is characterized by a systematic approach to the evaluation of various phenomena. In the concept of hierarchical holism, which dominates the systems approach, various biological systems form a hierarchical structure in which an element of one system is an independent system of a lower level. In any individual system, the key points are the interaction of its components and the structure that determines the stability of the system. The microbial systems of wetlands in West Siberia play a crucial ecological role in the context of the problem of greenhouse gases and changes in climate and atmospheric composition. The greenhouse gas methane entering the atmosphere is formed by the methanogenic microbial community, which is a complex biological system containing microbial groups which are closely related to each other by trophic interactions. The result of the work and the efficiency of the methanogenic microbial community is also determined by various physicochemical parameters of the environment. The main microbial agents responsible for the production of CH4 are methanogenic archaea, which are divided into three main trophic groups. The application of a systematic approach to the study of the methane cycle in wetlands of West Siberia allows us to comprehensively evaluate the vertical and horizontal system relationships, identify key elements and conduct a complex analysis of the problem under study.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2020;11(1):53-68

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